Publication date: Sep 01, 2023
Background: We previously conducted a Phase IIa randomized placebo-controlled trial of 40 subjects to assess the efficacy and safety of dupilumab use in those hospitalized with COVID-19 (NCT04920916). Based on our pre-clinical data suggesting downstream pulmonary dysfunction with COVID-19 induced type 2 inflammation, we contacted patients from our Phase IIa study at 1 year for assessment of Post Covid-19 Conditions (PCC). Methods: Subjects at 1 year after treatment underwent pulmonary function testing (PFTs), high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging, symptom questionnaires, neurocognitive assessments, and serum immune biomarker analysis, with subject survival also monitored. The primary outcome was the proportion of abnormal PFTs, defined as an abnormal diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) or 6-minute walk testing (6MWT) at the 1-year visit. Results: Sixteen of the 29 one-year survivors consented to the follow up visit. We found that subjects who had originally received dupilumab were less likely to have abnormal PFTs compared to those who received placebo (Fishers exact p=0.011, adjusted p=0.058). We additionally found that 3 out of 19 subjects (16%) in the dupilumab group died by 1 year compared to 8 out of 21 subjects (38%) in the placebo group (log rank p=0.12). We did not find significant differences in neurocognitive testing, symptoms or CT chest imaging between treatment groups but observed evidence of reduced type 2 inflammation in those who received dupilumab. Conclusions: We observed evidence of reduced long-term morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 with dupilumab treatment during acute hospitalization when added to standard of care regimens.