Publication date: Sep 01, 2023
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) infection has caused an increase in mortality and morbidity, but with vaccination, the disease severity has significantly reduced. With the emergence of various variants of concern (VOCs), the vaccine breakthrough infection has also increased. Here we studied circulating spike-specific T follicular response (cTfh) in infection-nacEFve vaccinees and convalescent vaccinees (individuals who got the Delta breakthrough infection after two doses of BBV152 vaccine) to understand their response as they are the most crucial cells that are involved in vaccine-mediated protection by helping in B-cell maturation. Our results indicated that cTfh cells in both the groups recognized the wild-type and Delta spike protein but memory response to the wild-type spike was superior in infection-nacEFve than in the convalescent group. The cytokine response, particularly interleukin-21 (IL-21) from cTfh, was also higher in infection-nacEFve than in convalescent vaccinees, indicating a dampened cTfh response in convalescent vaccinees after breakthrough infection. Also, there was a positive correlation between IL-21 from cTfh cells and neutralizing antibodies of infection-nacEFve vaccinees. Multiple cytokine analysis also revealed higher inflammation in convalescent vaccinees. Our data indicated that the necessity of a third booster dose may be individual-specific depending on the steady-state functional phenotype of immune cells.
|disease||VO||Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2|
|disease||MESH||vaccine breakthrough infection|
|disease||IDO||adaptive immune response|
|disease||MESH||Breakthrough Infections COVID-19|