Comparison between virtual and hybrid education for psychological factors and academic stress in freshman nursing students: a case-control study.

Publication date: Sep 04, 2023

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted several changes in the learning methods of students. The purpose of this study was to establish whether a relationship between levels of resilience, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and academic stress in both hybrid and virtual learning education exist. A descriptive and observational case-control study was carried out in universities that offer nursing designation. A total sample of 140 freshman nursing students was recruited. Concretely, 70 participants were recruited from an university receiving hybrid education and 70 participants were recruited from another university receiving virtual learning education. Nursing students self-reported the following questionnaires: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the 10 CD-Risk Connor-Davidson Risk Resilience Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Academic Stress Coping Scale. Significant differences (Pā€‰=ā€‰0. 001) showed higher depression levels for students who received virtual education versus received hybrid education. Differences in Rosenberg test for self-esteem and Beck Anxiety Inventory for anxiety (Pā€‰>ā€‰0. 05) were not found. Students who received online education presented higher depression levels which could be due to they had not face-to-face relationships with teachers or classmates, whereas the hybrid education group received a different type of direct interaction with teachers and peers.

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Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus Learning
Freshman Nursing students
Nursing Pandemics
Pandemic Stress, psychological.


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
disease MESH mental disorders
disease VO time
disease MESH infection
disease MESH lifestyle
disease VO population
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease IDO symptom
drug DRUGBANK Creatinolfosfate
drug DRUGBANK Pirenzepine
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease VO frequency
disease MESH weight gain
drug DRUGBANK Trihexyphenidyl
drug DRUGBANK Cefaclor
disease MESH Burnout
disease VO effectiveness
drug DRUGBANK Ranitidine
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH Stress psychological

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