Publication date: Sep 06, 2023
Immune dysregulation in patients with acute COVID-19 under chronic hemodialysis (CHD) is fully not elucidated. The changes of mononuclear counts and mediators before and after HD and associations with final outcome were studied. In this prospective study, hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 under CHD and matched comparators under HD were analyzed for their absolute counts of lymphoid cells and circulating inflammatory mediators. Blood samples were collected before start and at the end of the first HD session; dialysate samples were also collected. Fifty-nine patients with acute COVID-19 under CHD and 20 uninfected comparators under CHD were enrolled. Circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-10, interferon-γ and platelet-derived growth factor-A were increased in patients. Concentrations of mediators did not differ before and after HD. Significant decreases of CD4-lymphocytes and CD19-lymphocytes were found in patients. The decrease of the expression of HLA-DR on CD14-monocytes was associated with unfavorable outcome (defined as WHO-CPS 6 or more by day 28); increased counts of CD19-lymphocytes were associated with better outcomes. Patients under CHD develop an inflammatory reaction to SARS-CoV-2 characterized by increase of inflammatory mediators, decrease of circulating T-lymphocytes and decrease of the expression of HLA-DR on CD14-monocytes.
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