Publication date: Sep 18, 2023
The treatment for COVID-19 has evolved rapidly since the start of the pandemic and now consists mainly of antiviral and immunomodulatory agents. Antivirals, such as remdesivir and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir, have proved to be most useful earlier in illness (e. g., as outpatient therapy) and for less severe disease. Immunomodulatory therapy, such as dexamethasone and interleukin-6 or Janus kinase inhibitors, are most useful in severe disease or critical illness. The role of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies has diminished because of the emergence of viral variants that are not anticipated to be susceptible to these treatments, and there still is not a consensus on the use of convalescent plasma. COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of venous thromboembolism, but the role of antithrombotic therapy is limited. Multiple investigational agents continue to be studied, which will alter current treatment paradigms as new data are released. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 75 is January 2024. Please see http://www. annualreviews. org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.