Publication date: Sep 18, 2023
The merger of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza infections is considered a potentially serious threat to public health. These two viral agents can cause extensive and severe lower and upper respiratory tract infections with lung damage with host factors. Today, the development of vaccination has been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization and mortality from the COVID-19 virus and influenza epidemics. Therefore, this study contributes to an immunoinformatics approach to producing a vaccine that can elicit strong and specific immune responses against COVID-19 and influenza A and B viruses. The NCBI, GISAID, and Uniprot databases were used to retrieve sequences. Linear B cell, Cytotoxic T lymphocyte, and Helper T lymphocyte epitopes were predicted using the online servers. Population coverage of MHC I epitopes worldwide for SARS-CoV-2, Influenza virus H3N2, H3N2, and Yamagata/Victoria were 99. 93%, 68. 67%, 68. 38%, and 85. 45%, respectively. Candidate epitopes were linked by GGGGS, GPGPG, and KK linkers. Different epitopes were permutated several times to form different peptides and then screened for antigenicity, allergenicity, and toxicity. The vaccine construct was analyzed for physicochemical properties, conformational B-cell epitopes, interaction with Toll-like receptors, and IFN-gamma-induced. Immune stimulation response of final construct was evaluated using C-IMMSIM. Eventually, the final construct sequence was codon-optimized for Escherichia coli K12 and Homo sapiens to design a multi-epitope vaccine and mRNA vaccine. In conclusion, due to the variable nature of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza proteins, the design of a multi-epitope vaccine can protect against all their standard variants, but laboratory validation is required. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
|disease||MESH||upper respiratory tract infections|