Publication date: Sep 21, 2023
Ritonavir was recently combined with nirmatrelvir in a new approved co-packaged medication form for the treatment of COVID-19. Quantitative analysis based on fluorescence spectroscopy measurement was extensively used for sensitive determination of compounds exhibited unique fluorescence features. The main objective of this work was to develop higher sensitive cost effective spectrofluorometric method for selective determination of ritonavir in the presence of nirmatrelvir in pure form, pharmaceutical tablet as well as in spiked human plasma. Ritonavir was found to exhibit unique native emission fluorescence at 404 nm when excited at 326 nm. On the other hand, nirmatrelvir had no emission bands when excited at 326 nm. This feature allowed selective determination of ritonavir without any interference from nirmatrelvir. The variables affecting fluorescence intensity of ritonavir were optimized in terms of sensitivity parameters and principles of green analytical chemistry. Ethanol was used a green solvent which provided efficient fluorescence intensity of the cited drug. The method was validated in accordance with the ICH Q2 (R1) standards in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision and specificity. The described method was successfully applied for ritonavir assay over the concentration range of 2. 0-20. 0 ng/mL. Ritonavir determination in the spiked human plasma was successfully done with satisfactory accepted results.
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