Publication date: Sep 21, 2023
Systemic inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis and severe COVID-19, provoke acute respiratory distress syndrome in which the pathological hyperpermeability of the microvasculature, induced by uncontrolled inflammatory stimulation, causes pulmonary edema. Identifying the inflammatory mediators that induce human lung microvascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction is essential to find the best anti-inflammatory treatments for critically ill acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. We have compared the responses of primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells to the main inflammatory mediators involved in cytokine storms induced by sepsis and SARS-CoV2 pulmonary infection and to sera from healthy donors and severely ill patients with sepsis. Endothelial barrier function was measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, quantitative confocal microscopy, and Western blot. The human lung microvascular endothelial cell barrier was completely disrupted by IL (interleukin)-6 conjugated with soluble IL-6R (IL-6 receptor) and by IL-1β, moderately affected by TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α and IFN (interferon)-γ and unaffected by other cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, MCP (monocyte chemoattractant protein)-1 and MCP-3. The inhibition of IL-1 and IL-6R simultaneously, but not separately, significantly reduced endothelial hyperpermeability on exposing human lung microvascular endothelial cells to a cytokine storm consisting of 8 inflammatory mediators or to sera from patients with sepsis. Simultaneous inhibition of IL-1 and JAK (Janus kinase)-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein), a signaling node downstream IL-6 and IFN-γ, also prevented septic serum-induced endothelial barrier disruption. These findings strongly suggest a major role for both IL-6 trans-signaling and IL-1β signaling in the pathological increase in permeability of the human lung microvasculature and reveal combinatorial strategies that enable the gradual control of pulmonary endothelial barrier function in response to a cytokine storm.
|Storms||respiratory distress syndrome|
|disease||MESH||acute respiratory distress syndrome|