Publication date: Sep 21, 2023
The waning of immunity after recovery or vaccination is a major factor accounting for the severity and prolonged duration of an array of epidemics, ranging from COVID-19 to diphtheria and pertussis. To study the effectiveness of different immunity level-based vaccination schemes in mitigating the impact of waning immunity, we construct epidemiological models that mimic the latter’s effect. The total susceptible population is divided into an arbitrarily large number of discrete compartments with varying levels of disease immunity. We then vaccinate various compartments within this framework, comparing the value of [Formula: see text] and the equilibria locations for our systems to determine an optimal immunization scheme under natural constraints. Relying on perturbative analysis, we establish a number of results concerning the location, existence, and uniqueness of the system’s endemic equilibria, as well as results on disease-free equilibria. We use numerical techniques to supplement our analytical ones, applying our model to waning immunity dynamics in pertussis, among other diseases. Our analytical results are applicable to a wide range of systems composed of arbitrarily many ODEs.
|Covid||Infectious disease modeling|