Publication date: Oct 01, 2023
Various digital sleep interventions have been implemented to address sleep and psychological complications during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the characteristics and effectiveness of digital sleep interventions on sleep and psychological outcomes for people with sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic are unknown. The protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42022325662), seven databases were searched from December 2019 to June 2023. Reference lists from digital sleep reviews were also identified and selected. Two reviewers independently screened eligible articles and extracted data. Quality appraisal was undertaken by two independent reviewers using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tools. Data synthesis was conducted using fixed- or random-effects model based on the results of the heterogeneity test. A total of 20 studies were identified, including nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 11 non-RCTs, involving 3860 participants. Meta-analyses showed that digital sleep interventions significantly improve sleep quality, insomnia, and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Subgroup analysis showed that interventions of more than four weeks, healthcare workers as participants, and relaxation therapies may have the advantage of improving sleep quality. Most non-RCTs supported the efficacy of digital sleep interventions on sleep and psychological health. Digital sleep interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic had significant effectiveness in improving sleep and psychological outcomes for people with sleep problems. More structured and personalised digital sleep interventions should be designed, and other diverse digital technologies could be used to improve sleep and psychological disorders.