Publication date: Sep 23, 2023
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes enteric diseases in pigs leading to substantial financial losses within the industry. The absence of commercial vaccines and limited research on PDCoV vaccines presents significant challenges. Therefore, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV) rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S through intranasal mucosal immunization in weaned piglets and SPF mice. Results indicated that rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S safely induced PDCoV S-specific and PRV gB-specific antibodies in piglets, with levels increasing 7 days after immunization. Virus challenge tests demonstrated that rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S effectively improved piglet survival rates, reduced virus shedding, and alleviated clinical symptoms and pathological damage. Notably, the recombinant virus reduced anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory responses by regulating IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β secretion after infection. Additionally, rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S colonized target intestinal segments infected with PDCoV, stimulated the secretion of cytokines by MLVS in mice, stimulated sIgA secretion in different intestinal segments of mice, and improved mucosal immune function. HE and AB/PAS staining confirmed a more complete intestinal mucosal barrier and a significant increase in goblet cell numbers after immunization. In conclusion, rPRVXJ-delgE/gI/TK-S exhibits good immunogenicity and safety in mice and piglets, making it a promising candidate vaccine for PDCoV.
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|Deltacoronavirus||Intestinal mucosal immunity|