Publication date: Oct 20, 2023
Little is known about the persistence of human milk anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after 2 and 3 vaccine doses and infection following 3 dose. In this study, human milk, saliva, and blood samples were collected from 33 lactating individuals before and after vaccination and infection. Antibody levels were measured using ELISA and symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. We found that after vaccination, milk anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted for up to 8 months. In addition, distinct patterns of human milk IgA and IgG production and higher milk RBD-blocking activity was observed after infection compared to 3-dose vaccination. Infected mothers reported more symptoms than vaccinated mothers. We examined the persistence of milk antibodies in infant saliva after breastfeeding and found that IgA was more abundant compared to IgG. Our results emphasize the importance of improving the secretion of IgA antibodies to human milk after vaccination to improve the protection of breastfeeding infants.
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