Publication date: Sep 22, 2023
Mucormycosis (MCR) is a common opportunistic mold infection, and Mucorales were recently designated by WHO as priority pathogens. The interest in this infection has risen significantly since the major outbreak of MCR in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in India. Herein, we summarize recently (last 24 months) published information regarding clinical aspects of MCR. The disease remains protean in its clinical presentation, difficult to diagnose, and challenging to treat. In 2021, cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) exploded in India during COVID-19 and manifested primarily as sino-orbital or sino-cerebral disease. Its classic risk factors included the triad of COVID-19, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and use of corticosteroids. Despite difficulties in the timely diagnosis of MCR, significant progress has been made with the use of molecular techniques in blood to assist with earlier diagnosis, which can facilitate earlier appropriate therapy and improve outcomes. In addition, advances have been made in the use of imaging to stage the disease, determining what types of multimodal therapy are required depending on staging, and tissue-based identification of Mucorales. Although the outlook for MCR has improved, effective new antifungals, risk stratification, and the optimal multimodality approaches remain an unmet need.