Publication date: Sep 25, 2023
The crucial role of interferon (IFN) signaling is well known in the restriction or eradication of pathogen invasion. Viruses take a variety of ways to antagonize host defense through eliminating IFN-signaling intracellularly for decades. However, the way by viruses target IFN-signaling extracellularly has not been discovered. Infection by both coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and enterovirus 71 (EV71 or EV-A71) can cause severe diseases such as neurological disorders and even death in children. Here, we show evidence that the protease of SARS-CoV-2 (3CL) and EV71 (2A) upregulates the expression and secretion of LDL-receptor-related protein-associated protein 1 (LRPAP1). As a ligand, the N-terminus of secreted LRPAP1 binds with the extracellular domain of IFNAR1 that triggers the receptor ubiquitination and degradation and promotes virus infection both in vitro, ex vivo in the mouse brain, and in vivo in newborn mice. A small peptide from the N-terminus of LRPAP1 effectively binds and causes IFNAR1 degradation that enhances both DNA and RNA viral infections, including herpesvirus HSV-1, hepatitis B virus (HBV), EV71, and beta-coronavirus HCoV-OC43; whereas α2M, a LRPAP1 inhibitor, arrests virus infections by stabilizing IFNAR1. Our study demonstrates a new mechanism used by viruses for evading host cell immunity, supporting a strategy for developing pan-antiviral drugs.
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