Mental health and resilience after the covid-19 pandemic: a multi-ethnic longitudinal survey.

Publication date: Nov 25, 2023

Longitudinal work on the impact of COVID-19 on population mental health and resilience beyond the first year of the pandemic is lacking. We aimed to understand how mental health and resilience evolved during the pandemic (2020) and two years later (2022) in a multi-ethnic Singaporean population. In addition, we assessed what characteristics were associated with mental health and resilience scores. We surveyed and analysed two balanced panel samples up to four times between 30 April 2020 and 11 July 2022. One panel assessed psychological distress (Kessler-10) and well-being (short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale) n = 313, and one panel assessed resilience (10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale) n = 583. A linear panel regression model with random effects assessed the temporal patterns for psychological distress, well-being, and resilience. Mean psychological distress scores (Kessler-10) were relatively stable over time and were not statistically significantly worse than baseline at any follow-up. Well-being scores improved over time and were significantly better than baseline by the third survey (22 Jul-18th Aug 2020) (0. 54 p = 0. 007, Cohen’s 0. 12). Scores had worsened by the last survey (27 June-11 July 2022) but were not significantly different from baseline 0. 20 p = 0. 30. Resilience scores declined over time. Scores at both follow-ups (14th Aug- 4th Sep 2020 and 27 June-11 July 2022) were statistically significantly lower than baseline: -1. 69 p 

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Concepts Keywords
July COVID-19
Pandemic Mental health
Therapy Pandemics
Public health


Type Source Name
disease MESH covid-19 pandemic
disease VO population
disease MESH psychological distress
disease VO time
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO organization
disease MESH post traumatic stress disorders
disease MESH mental illnesses
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH infections
disease MESH unemployment
disease VO mouth
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease IDO country
disease VO USA
disease MESH education level
disease VO monthly
drug DRUGBANK Ademetionine
disease MESH uncertainty
disease VO effectiveness
disease MESH infectious diseases
drug DRUGBANK Ilex paraguariensis leaf
disease VO protocol
disease IDO contact tracing
disease MESH loneliness
drug DRUGBANK Cefalotin
disease MESH influenza
disease MESH insomnia
disease VO Canada
drug DRUGBANK D-Alanine
disease VO organ
drug DRUGBANK Gold
disease VO ReCOV
disease MESH anxiety disorders
disease VO report
drug DRUGBANK Alpha-methyltryptamine

Original Article

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