SARS-CoV-2 infection following booster vaccination: Illness and symptom profile in a prospective, observational community-based case-control study.

Publication date: Dec 01, 2023

Booster COVID-19 vaccines have shown efficacy in clinical trials and effectiveness in real-world data against symptomatic and severe illness. However, some people still become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following a third (booster) vaccination. This study describes the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 illness following a third vaccination and assesses the risk of progression to symptomatic disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals with time since vaccination. This prospective, community-based, case-control study used data from UK-based, adult (≥18 years) users of the COVID Symptom Study mobile application, self-reporting a first positive COVID-19 test between June 1, 2021 and April 1, 2022. To describe the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 illness following a third vaccination, we selected cases and controls who had received a third and second dose of monovalent vaccination against COVID-19, respectively, and reported a first positive SARS-CoV-2 test at least 7 days after most recent vaccination. Cases and controls were matched (1:1) based on age, sex, BMI, time between first vaccination and infection, and week of testing. We used logistic regression models (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, level of social deprivation and frailty) to analyse associations of disease severity, overall disease duration, and individual symptoms with booster vaccination status. To assess for potential waning of vaccine effectiveness, we compared disease severity, duration, and symptom profiles of individuals testing positive within 3 months of most recent vaccination (reference group) to profiles of individuals infected between 3 and 4, 4-5, and 5-6 months, for both third and second dose. All analyses were stratified by time period, based on the predominant SARS-CoV-2 variant at time of infection (Delta: June 1, 2021-27 Nov, 2021; Omicron: 20 Dec, 2021-Apr 1, 2022). During the study period, 50,162 (Delta period) and 162,041 (Omicron) participants reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. During the Delta period, infection following three vaccination doses was associated with lower odds of long COVID (symptoms≥ 4 weeks) (OR=0. 83, CI[0. 50-1. 36], p

Concepts Keywords
June Booster vaccination
Models Break-through infection
Vaccine COVID-19
Disease severity
Hospitalisation
Infection
Long COVID
Omicron
Vaccination

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease VO vaccination
disease IDO symptom
disease VO effectiveness
disease VO time
disease VO dose
disease MESH infection
disease VO vaccine effectiveness
disease MESH long COVID

Original Article

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