An Analysis of the Neutralizing Antibodies against the Main SARS-CoV-2 Variants in Healthcare Workers (HCWs) Vaccinated against or Infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Publication date: Nov 08, 2023

Although the anti-COVID-19 vaccination has proved to be an effective preventive tool, “breakthrough infections” have been documented in patients with complete primary vaccination courses. Most of the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies produced after SARS-CoV-2 infection target the spike protein receptor-binding domain which has an important role in facilitating viral entry and the infection of the host cells. SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated the ability to evolve by accumulating mutations in the spike protein to escape the humoral response of a host. The aim of this study was to compare the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) against the variants of SARS-CoV-2 by analyzing the sera of recovered and vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs). A total of 293 HCWs were enrolled and divided into three cohorts as follows: 91 who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection (nVP); 102 that were vaccinated and became positive after the primary cycle (VP); and 100 that were vaccinated with complete primary cycles and concluded the follow-up period without becoming positive (VN). Higher neutralization titers were observed in the vaccinated subjects’ arms compared to the nVP subjects’ arms. Differences in neutralization titers between arms for single variants were statistically highly significant (p < 0. 001), except for the differences between titers against the Alpha variant in the nVP and in VP groups, which were also statistically significant (p < 0. 05). Within the nVP group, the number of subjects with an absence of neutralizing antibodies was high. The presence of higher titers in patients with a complete primary cycle compared to patients who had recovered from infection suggested the better efficacy of artificial immunization compared to natural immunization, and this further encourages the promotion of vaccination even in subjects with previous infections.

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Concepts Keywords
Basel COVID-19
Complete healthcare workers
Mutations neutralizing antibodies
Vaccinated SARS-CoV-2
Viral vaccine
variants of concern

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease VO vaccinated
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination
disease VO effective
disease MESH breakthrough infections
disease VO primary vaccination
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease MESH infection
disease IDO host
drug DRUGBANK Nevirapine
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
disease VO immunization
drug DRUGBANK L-Aspartic Acid
disease VO vaccine
disease VO Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
disease MESH influenza
disease MESH syndrome
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease IDO symptom
disease MESH respiratory distress syndromes
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH multiple organ failure
disease VO Comirnaty
disease VO Glycoprotein
disease VO injection
disease VO dose
disease IDO process
disease MESH morbidity
disease VO population
disease IDO assay
disease VO unvaccinated
disease VO vaccine dose
disease IDO blood
drug DRUGBANK Streptomycin
drug DRUGBANK Methylergometrine
drug DRUGBANK Benzylpenicillin
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Sodium lauryl sulfate
disease VO titer
disease VO antibody titer
disease IDO infectivity
disease VO immunized
disease VO vaccine efficacy
disease VO vaccine effectiveness
disease IDO production
disease MESH emergency
disease VO efficient
disease MESH viral infections
disease MESH respiratory diseases
disease VO effectiveness
disease VO protocol
disease IDO replication
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
drug DRUGBANK (S)-Des-Me-Ampa
disease VO report
disease IDO cell
disease VO organization
drug DRUGBANK Rosin
disease VO Iss
disease IDO virulence

Original Article

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