Association between Average Vitamin D Levels and COVID-19 Mortality in 19 European Countries-A Population-Based Study.

Publication date: Nov 17, 2023

Early epidemic reports have linked low average 25(OH) vitamin D levels with increased COVID-19 mortality. However, there has been limited updated research on 25(OH) vitamin D and its impact on COVID-19 mortality. This study aimed to update the initial report studying the link between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 mortality by using multi-country data in 19 European countries up to the middle of June 2023. COVID-19 data for 19 European countries included in this study were downloaded from Our World in Data from 1 March 2020, to 14 June 2023, and were included in the statistical analysis. The 25(OH) vitamin D average data were collected by conducting a literature review. A generalized estimation equation model was used to model the data. Compared to European countries with 25(OH) vitamin D levels of ≤50 nmol/L, European countries with 25(OH) vitamin D average levels greater than 50 nmol/L had lower COVID-19 mortality rates (RR = 0. 794, 95% CI: 0. 662-0. 953). A statistically significant negative Spearman rank correlation was observed between 25(OH) vitamin D average levels and COVID-19 mortality. We also found significantly lower COVID-19 mortality rates in countries with high average 25(OH) vitamin D levels. Randomized trials on vitamin D supplementation are needed. In the meantime, the issue of vitamin D use should be debated in relation to the ongoing discussions of national post-COVID-19 resilience against future pandemics.

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Concepts Keywords
Conducting coronavirus
June COVID-19
Pandemics COVID-19
Vitamin Europe
population-based study
Research Design
Vitamin D
Vitamin D
vitamin D
Vitamin D Deficiency


Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Vitamin D
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO population
disease VO report
disease MESH vitamin D deficiency
disease IDO country
disease MESH cancer
disease MESH vitamin deficiency
disease MESH infection
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH Malnutrition
disease MESH infectious diseases
pathway REACTOME Immune System
disease VO Hormone
disease MESH influenza
disease VO time

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