Comparative Immune Response after Vaccination with SOBERANA 02 and SOBERANA plus Heterologous Scheme and Natural Infection in Young Children.

Publication date: Oct 25, 2023

(1) Background: In children, SARS-CoV-2 infection is mostly accompanied by mild COVID-19 symptoms. However, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and long-term sequelae are often severe complications. Therefore, the protection of the pediatric population against SARS-CoV-2 with effective vaccines is particularly important. Here, we compare the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited in children (n = 15, aged 5-11 years) vaccinated with the RBD-based vaccines SOBERANA 02 and SOBERANA Plus combined in a heterologous scheme with those from children (n = 10, aged 4-11 years) who recovered from mild symptomatic COVID-19. (2) Methods: Blood samples were taken 14 days after the last dose for vaccinated children and 45-60 days after the infection diagnosis for COVID-19 recovered children. Anti-RBD IgG and ACE2-RBD inhibition were assessed by ELISA; IgA, cytokines, and cytotoxic-related proteins were determined by multiplex assays. Total B and T cell subpopulations and IFN-γ release were measured by multiparametric flow cytometry using a large panel of antibodies after in vitro stimulation with S1 peptides. (3) Results: Significant higher levels of specific anti-RBD IgG and IgA and ACE2-RBD inhibition capacity were found in vaccinated children in comparison to COVID-19 recovered children. Th1-like and Th2-like CD4 T cells were also significantly higher in vaccinated subjects. IFN-γ secretion was higher in central memory CD4 T cells of COVID-19 recovered children, but no differences between both groups were found in the CD4 and CD8 T cell effector, terminal effector, and nacEFve T cell subpopulations. In contrast to low levels of IL-4, high levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 suggest a predominant Th1 cell polarization. Cytotoxic-related proteins granzyme A and B, perforin, and granulin were also found in the supernatant after S1 stimulation in both vaccinated and recovered children. (4) Conclusions: Vaccination with the heterologous scheme of SOBERANA 02/SOBERANA Plus induces a stronger antibody and cellular immune response compared to natural infections in young children.

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Concepts Keywords
Basel children
Cd4 COVID-19
Inflammatory memory T cell
Vaccinated SARS-CoV-2


Type Source Name
disease IDO immune response
disease VO vaccination
disease VO Soberana 02
disease VO Soberana Plus
disease MESH Infection
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease MESH syndrome
disease MESH sequelae
disease VO population
disease VO effective
disease VO vaccinated
disease IDO blood
disease VO dose
disease IDO cell
drug DRUGBANK Binetrakin
drug DRUGBANK Interleukin-10
disease VO vaccine
drug DRUGBANK Filgrastim
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH emergency
disease MESH long COVID
disease VO vaccine dose
disease MESH infectious diseases
disease MESH pneumonia
disease MESH meningitis
drug DRUGBANK Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)
disease VO titer
disease IDO acute infection
disease IDO history
drug DRUGBANK Edetic Acid
drug DRUGBANK Flunarizine
drug DRUGBANK Dimethyl sulfoxide
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Nitrogen
disease IDO assay
disease VO dead
disease VO viability
drug DRUGBANK L-Glutamine
drug DRUGBANK Streptomycin
drug DRUGBANK Amino acids
disease VO Glycoprotein
disease VO viable

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