Epidemiological Characteristics of COVID-19 during Seven Consecutive Epidemiological Waves (2020-2022) in the North Bačka District, Serbia.

Publication date: Nov 07, 2023

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a threat to global public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in the North Bačka district while observing seven pandemic waves. The cross-sectional study was based on data from the COVID-19 surveillance database of the Institute for Public Health of Vojvodina during the period from March 2020 to December 2022. A total of 38,685 primary infections and 4067 reinfections caused by SARS-CoV-2 were notified. Pandemic waves caused by the Delta variant (cumulative incidence rate of 2482. 37/100,000) and by the Omicron variant (cumulative incidence rate of 2994. 45/100,000) emerged as significant focal points during the surveillance period. Over the course of three consecutive years (2020-2022), women were more affected (50. 11%, 54. 03%, and 55. 68%, respectively). The highest incidence rates in age-specific categories were recorded in 2021 for the age group 40-49 (1345. 32 per 10,000 inhabitants), while in 2022, they shifted towards the elderly population. Regarding vaccination status at the time of diagnosis, in 2021, around 15% of patients were vaccinated, while in 2022, the number increased to 37%. The most widely received vaccine was BBIBP-CorV (67. 45%), followed by BNT162b2 (19. 81%), Gam-COVID-Vac (9. 31%), and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (3. 42%) vaccine. The implementation of stringent public health measures and their mitigation, together with the emergence of new variants, influenced the dynamics of COVID-19 pandemic waves in the North Bačka district. Notably, throughout the study period, the working-age population was the most affected, along with females, with a mild clinical presentation dominating. Reinfections were most frequently recorded during the latter pandemic waves. Dealing with this pandemic has provided some valuable lessons for the development of future strategies in the case of a similar public health crisis.

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Concepts Keywords
Pandemic Aged
Serbia BIBP COVID-19 vaccine
Vaccination BNT162 Vaccine
BNT162 Vaccine
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
Cross-Sectional Studies
epidemiological waves


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH infections
disease MESH reinfections
disease VO population
disease VO vaccination
disease VO time
disease VO vaccinated
disease VO vaccine
disease VO BBIBP-CorV
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease IDO infection
disease VO organization
disease IDO fomite
disease MESH arthralgia
disease MESH sore throat
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
disease MESH cerebrovascular diseases
disease VO immunization
disease MESH unemployment
drug DRUGBANK Gold
disease MESH comorbidity
disease MESH pneumonia
disease IDO primary infection
disease VO Comirnaty
disease IDO cell
disease VO dose
disease VO vaccination dose
disease VO age
disease MESH retirement
disease VO ANOVA
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease VO unvaccinated
disease VO COVID-19 vaccine

Original Article

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