Publication date: Oct 26, 2023
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world unprecedentedly, with both positive and negative impacts. COVID-19 significantly impacted the immune system, and understanding the immunological consequences of COVID-19 is essential for developing effective treatment strategies. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively explore and provide insights into the immunological aspects of long COVID-19, a phenomenon where individuals continue to experience a range of symptoms and complications, even after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection has subsided. The immune system responds to the initial infection by producing various immune cells and molecules, including antibodies, T cells, and cytokines. However, in some patients, this immune response becomes dysregulated, leading to chronic inflammation and persistent symptoms. Long COVID-19 encompasses diverse persistent symptoms affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal systems. In the post-COVID-19 immunological era, long COVID-19 and its impact on immune response have become a significant concern. Post-COVID-19 immune pathology, including autoimmunity and immune-mediated disorders, has also been reported in some patients. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of long COVID-19, its relationship to immunological responses, and the impact of post-COVID-19 immune pathology on patient outcomes. Additionally, the review addresses the current and potential treatments for long COVID-19, including immunomodulatory therapies, rehabilitation programs, and mental health support, all of which aim to improve the quality of life for individuals with long COVID-19. Understanding the complex interplay between the immune system and long COVID-19 is crucial for developing targeted therapeutic strategies and providing optimal care in the post-COVID-19 era.
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