The Time-Dependent Association of Torque Teno Virus Load with the Level of SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG Antibodies Following COVID-19 Vaccination in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Publication date: Oct 31, 2023

Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) show an impaired humoral immune response to COVID-19 vaccination due to their immunocompromised status. Torque teno virus (TTV) is a possible marker of immune function. This marker may be helpful in predicting the immune response after COVID-19 vaccination in order to decide which vaccination strategy should be applied. We therefore investigated whether TTV load is associated with the humoral response after COVID-19 vaccination. Of the KTR who participated in two prospective vaccination studies and received two to four doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine, 122 were included. TTV load was measured prior to vaccination, and S1 IgG antibody levels were measured 28 days after vaccination. TTV load was independently inversely associated with S1 IgG antibodies after COVID-19 vaccination (B: -2. 19 (95% CI: -3. 6–0. 8), p = 0. 002). Interestingly, we found a significant interaction between TTV load and time after transplantation (p = 0. 005). When patients were longer after transplantation, TTV load was less predictive for S1 IgG antibody response after vaccination compared to patients that were shorter after transplantation. Our data suggest that TTV load is a good marker in predicting COVID-19 vaccination antibody response and may be helpful in selecting a strategy shortly after transplantation. However, this marker should be handled with caution longer after transplantation.

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Concepts Keywords
Helpful 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273
Kidney 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273
Mrna COVID-19
Vaccination COVID-19 vaccination
COVID-19 Vaccines
COVID-19 Vaccines
Immunoglobulin G
Immunoglobulin G
Kidney Transplantation
kidney transplantation
Prospective Studies
Torque teno virus
Torque teno virus
Transplant Recipients
Viral Load


Type Source Name
disease VO time
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination
disease IDO humoral immune response
disease IDO immune response
disease VO COVID-19 vaccine
disease MESH Infection
disease VO vaccine
disease IDO immunosuppression
drug DRUGBANK Mycophenolic acid
drug DRUGBANK Monomethyl fumarate
pathway REACTOME Immune System
disease VO population
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
disease IDO susceptibility
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO dose
drug DRUGBANK Mycophenolate mofetil
disease IDO blood
disease MESH seroconversion
disease VO gene
disease VO USA
disease IDO assay
drug DRUGBANK L-Valine
disease VO ANOVA

Original Article

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