Developing of an open-source low-cost ventilator based on turbine technology.

Publication date: Nov 30, 2023

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed numerous global health system deficits, even in developed countries. The high cost and shortage of treatment, health care, and medical devices are the reasons. Aside from new mutations, the availability of respirators is an urgent concern, especially in developing countries. Even after the pandemic, respiratory diseases are among the most prevalent diseases. Researchers can help reduce treatment costs by offering scalable, open-source solutions that are manufacturable. Since March 2020, serious efforts have been made to reduce the problems caused by the lack of respirators at the lowest possible cost. In this research paper, a unique and integrated solution for a fully automatic ventilator is presented and described. The design considers the cost, speed of assembly, safety, ease of use, robustness, portability issues, and scalability to fit all requirements for emergency ventilation. Furthermore, the device was developed using turbine technology to generate air pressure. The work describes a low-cost alternative ventilator that uses a novel proportional-valve approach to control oxygen mixing process, control circuit, and control algorithm. The current software supports pressure mode controllers, and it can be upgraded to volume-mode or dual mode without any modifications in the hardware. In addition, the hardware, particularly the electronic circuit, has idle input/output ports for further development. Based on the evaluations of the developed ventilator using an artificial lung, the system exhibited acceptable accuracy regarding to the pressure, leak compensation, and oxygen concentration levels. The designated safety conditions have been met, and the safety alarms tripped according to any violations. Moreover, all design files are provided with clear instructions to rebuild the device, despite the complexity of electronics assembly. The system can be described as a development kit, which can shorten the time for researchers/manufacturers to develop a device equivalent to the expensive devices available in the market.

Concepts Keywords
Expensive blower
Lowest electronic control circuit
Researchers Pressure mode
Ventilator proportional valve
volume mode


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19 pandemic
disease MESH respiratory diseases
disease VO LACK
disease MESH emergency
disease VO device
drug DRUGBANK Medical air
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
disease IDO process
disease IDO algorithm
disease VO volume
drug DRUGBANK Methionine
disease VO time

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