Interaction dynamics between innate and adaptive immune cells responding to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in non-human primates.

Publication date: Dec 02, 2023

As SARS-CoV-2 variants continue evolving, testing updated vaccines in non-human primates remains important for guiding human clinical practice. To date, such studies have focused on antibody titers and antigen-specific B and T cell frequencies. Here, we extend our understanding by integrating innate and adaptive immune responses to mRNA-1273 vaccination in rhesus macaques. We sorted innate immune cells from a pre-vaccine time point, as well as innate immune cells and antigen-specific peripheral B and T cells two weeks after each of two vaccine doses and used single-cell sequencing to assess the transcriptomes and adaptive immune receptors of each cell. We show that a subset of S-specific T cells expresses cytokines critical for activating innate responses, with a concomitant increase in CCR5-expressing intermediate monocytes and a shift of natural killer cells to a more cytotoxic phenotype. The second vaccine dose, administered 4 weeks after the first, elicits an increase in circulating germinal center-like B cells 2 weeks later, which are more clonally expanded and enriched for epitopes in the receptor binding domain. Both doses stimulate inflammatory response genes associated with elevated antibody production. Overall, we provide a comprehensive picture of bidirectional signaling between innate and adaptive components of the immune system and suggest potential mechanisms for the enhanced response to secondary exposure.

Open Access PDF

Concepts Keywords
Guiding Adaptive
Killer Antibody
Primates Antigen
Vaccines Doses


Type Source Name
disease VO vaccination
disease IDO cell
disease VO vaccine
disease VO time
disease VO vaccine dose
pathway REACTOME Immune System
disease MESH COVID 19
disease VO vaccine candidate
disease VO effective
disease MESH infection
disease MESH Allergy
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
disease VO USA
disease VO frequency
disease IDO production
disease VO dose
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease IDO blood
disease VO vaccinated
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
drug DRUGBANK Amino acids
disease IDO adaptive immune response
disease VO immunization
drug DRUGBANK Myricetin
disease MESH sti
drug DRUGBANK Dimethyl sulfoxide
drug DRUGBANK Chromium
disease VO population
disease MESH inflammation
drug DRUGBANK Albendazole
drug DRUGBANK Cycloserine
disease IDO quality
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease VO Pla
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease VO efficient
disease VO MVA
pathway KEGG Apoptosis
disease VO ANOVA
drug DRUGBANK Natural alpha interferon
disease IDO innate immune response
disease MESH clinical relevance
drug DRUGBANK Phosphate ion
drug DRUGBANK L-Glutamine
drug DRUGBANK Streptomycin
disease VO dead
disease VO protocol
drug DRUGBANK Trimebutine
drug DRUGBANK Pidolic Acid
drug DRUGBANK Glycine
drug DRUGBANK L-Tyrosine
disease VO gene
disease VO organization
disease VO report
disease MESH influenza
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
disease MESH viral infections
disease IDO immune response
disease VO boost vaccination
disease MESH tumor
disease MESH histocompatibility
disease IDO host
disease VO vaccine efficacy
disease MESH hepatitis
disease MESH reinfection
disease IDO process
drug DRUGBANK Efavirenz

Original Article

(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)