Sex differences in vascular endothelial function related to acute and long COVID-19.

Publication date: Dec 01, 2023

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has been at the forefront of health sciences research since its emergence in China in 2019 that quickly led to a global pandemic. As a result of this research, and the large numbers of infected patients globally, there were rapid enhancements made in our understanding of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathology, including its role in the development of uncontrolled immune responses and its link to the development of endotheliitis and endothelial dysfunction. There were also some noted differences in the rate and severity of infection between males and females with acute COVID. Some individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 also experience long-COVID, an important hallmark symptom of this being Myalgic Encephalomyelitis-Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME-CFS), also experienced differently between males and females. The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of sex on the vasculature during acute and long COVID-19, present any link between ME-CFS and endothelial dysfunction, and provide evidence for the relationship between ME-CFS and the immune system. We also will delineate biological sex differences observed in other post viral infections and, assess if sex differences exist in how the immune system responds to viral infection causing ME-CFS.

Concepts Keywords
China COVID-19
Coronavirus Endothelial dysfunction
Females Immune response
Global Sex


Type Source Name
disease MESH long COVID
disease VO Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
disease MESH Coronavirus disease 2019
disease MESH infection
disease IDO symptom
disease MESH Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
pathway REACTOME Immune System
disease VO biological sex
disease MESH viral infections
disease IDO immune response

Original Article

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