Racial difference in mortality among COVID-19 hospitalizations in California.

Publication date: Dec 04, 2023

In the US, racial disparities in hospital outcomes are well documented. We explored whether race was associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission among COVID-19 patients in California. This was a retrospective analysis of California State Inpatient Database during 2020. Hospitalizations ≥ 18 years of age for COVID-19 were included. Cox proportional hazards with mixed effects were used for associations between race and in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression was used for the association between race and ICU admission. Among 87,934 COVID-19 hospitalizations, majority were Hispanics (56. 5%), followed by White (27. 3%), Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American (9. 9%), and Black (6. 3%). Cox regression showed higher mortality risk among Hispanics, compared to Whites (hazard ratio, 0. 91; 95% CI 0. 87-0. 96), Blacks (hazard ratio, 0. 87; 95% CI 0. 79-0. 94), and Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American (hazard ratio, 0. 89; 95% CI 0. 83-0. 95). Logistic regression showed that the odds of ICU admission were significantly higher among Hispanics, compared to Whites (OR, 1. 70; 95% CI 1. 67-1. 74), Blacks (OR, 1. 70; 95% CI 1. 64-1. 78), and Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American (OR, 1. 82; 95% CI 1. 76-1. 89). We found significant disparities in mortality among COVID-19 hospitalizations in California. Hispanics were the worst affected with the highest mortality and ICU admission rates.

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Concepts Keywords
Covid Admission
Hispanics American
Hospitalizations18years Asian
Pacific California
Race Covid


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH morbidity
disease VO population
disease MESH comorbidity
disease VO Equity
disease MESH SID
disease VO USA
disease MESH Heart Failure
disease MESH Pulmonary Hypertension
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH diabetes mellitus
disease MESH hyperlipidemia
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH atrial fibrillation
disease MESH peripheral vascular disease
disease MESH liver disease
disease MESH chronic renal failure
disease MESH alcohol abuse
disease MESH drug abuse
disease MESH stroke
disease MESH pulmonary disease
disease MESH cancer
disease MESH anemia
drug DRUGBANK Honey
disease VO age
disease MESH panics
drug DRUGBANK Angiotensin II
disease VO organ
drug DRUGBANK Tocilizumab
disease MESH infection
disease MESH death
disease IDO quality
disease MESH Syndrome
disease VO Hormone
disease MESH embolism
disease IDO susceptibility

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