Publication date: Jan 08, 2024
We examined the histopathological changes in the olfactory mucosa of cynomolgus and rhesus macaque models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection induced severe inflammatory changes in the olfactory mucosa. A major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, HLA-DR was expressed in macrophage and supporting cells, and melanocytes were increased in olfactory mucosa. Supporting cells and olfactory neurons were infected, and SARS-CoV-2 N protein was detected in the axons of olfactory neurons and in olfactory bulbs. Viral RNA was detected in olfactory bulbs and brain tissues. The olfactory epithelium-olfactory bulb pathway may be important as a route for intracranial infection by SARS-CoV-2.
|Nose-associated lymphoid tissue