Hospital Antibiotic Consumption before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hungary.

Publication date: Jan 20, 2024

The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic use in the Hungarian hospital care sector during and before the pandemic. Aggregated systemic antibiotic (ATC: J01) utilisation data were obtained for the 2010-2021 period. Classifications and calculations were performed according to the WHO ATC/DDD index and expressed as DDD per 1000 inhabitants and per day (DID), DDD per 100 patient-days (DHPD) and DDD/discharge. A linear regression (trend analysis) was performed for the pre-COVID years (2010-2019) and a prediction interval was set up to assess whether the pandemic years’ observed utilisation fit in. Antibiotic utilisation was constant in DID before and during the pandemic (2019: 1. 16; 2020: 1. 21), while we observed a substantial increase in antibiotic use when expressed in DDD per 100 patient-days (2019: 23. 3, 2020: 32. 2) or DDD/discharge (2019: 1. 83, 2020: 2. 45). The observed utilisation level of penicillin combinations; first-, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins; carbapenems; glycopeptides; nitroimidazoles and macrolides exceeded the predicted utilisation values in both pandemic years. Before the pandemic, co-amoxiclav headed the top list of antibiotic use, while during the pandemic, ceftriaxone became the most widely used antibiotic. Azithromycin moved up substantially on the top list of antibiotic use, with a 397% increase (2019: 0. 45; 2020: 2. 24 DHPD) in use. In summary, the pandemic had a major impact on the scale and pattern of hospital antibiotic use in Hungary.

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Concepts Keywords
Antibiotic antibiotics
Hungarian consumption
Macrolides COVID-19


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19 Pandemic
drug DRUGBANK Timonacic
drug DRUGBANK Ceftriaxone
drug DRUGBANK Azithromycin
disease MESH Emergency
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease IDO antibiotic resistance
drug DRUGBANK Trimethoprim
drug DRUGBANK Imidazole
drug DRUGBANK Metronidazole
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
drug DRUGBANK Ciprofloxacin
drug DRUGBANK Cefuroxime
drug DRUGBANK Clarithromycin
drug DRUGBANK Levofloxacin
drug DRUGBANK Cefazolin
drug DRUGBANK Imipenem
drug DRUGBANK Cilastatin
drug DRUGBANK Doxycycline
drug DRUGBANK Clindamycin
drug DRUGBANK Moxifloxacin
disease VO population
disease MESH infection
disease MESH co infection
drug DRUGBANK Meropenem
drug DRUGBANK Ertapenem
drug DRUGBANK Aztreonam
drug DRUGBANK Cefepime
drug DRUGBANK Ceftazidime
drug DRUGBANK Piperacillin
drug DRUGBANK Tazobactam
disease MESH nosocomial infections
disease MESH pneumonia
disease MESH superinfection
disease VO monthly
disease VO dose
disease VO effectiveness
drug DRUGBANK Ilex paraguariensis leaf
disease VO Pal
disease MESH Comas
disease VO USA
disease VO organization
disease IDO secondary infection
disease MESH complications
disease VO frequency

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