Risk for diagnosis or treatment of mood or anxiety disorders in adults after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2020-2022.

Risk for diagnosis or treatment of mood or anxiety disorders in adults after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2020-2022.

Publication date: Jan 18, 2024

COVID-19 is associated with increased risks for mood or anxiety disorders, but it remains uncertain how the association evolves over time or which patient groups are most affected. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide database of electronic health records to determine the risk of depressive or anxiety disorder diagnoses after SARS-CoV-2 infection by 3-month blocks from January 2020 to April 2022. The study population comprised 822,756 patients (51. 8% female; mean age 42. 8 years) with COVID-19 and 2,034,353 patients with other respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (53. 5% female, mean age 30. 6 years). First time diagnoses of depressive or anxiety disorders 14 days to 3 months after infection, as well as new or new plus recurrent prescriptions of antidepressants or anxiolytics, were compared between propensity score matched cohorts using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, including hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk of a new diagnosis or prescription was also stratified by age, sex, and race to better characterize which groups were most affected. In the first three months of the pandemic, patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 had significantly increased risk of depression or anxiety disorder diagnosis (HR 1. 65 [95% CI, 1. 30-2. 08]). October 2021 to January 2022 (HR, 1. 12 [95% CI, 1. 06-1. 18]) and January to April 2022 (HR, 1. 08 [95% CI, 1. 01-1. 14]). Similar temporal patterns were observed for antidepressant and anxiolytic prescriptions, when the control group was patients with bone fracture, when anxiety and depressive disorders were considered separately, when recurrent depressive disorder was tested, and when the test period was extended to 6 months. COVID-19 patients ≥65 years old demonstrated greatest absolute risk at the start of the pandemic (6. 8%), which remained consistently higher throughout the study period (HR, 1. 20 [95% CI, 1. 13-1. 27]), and overall, women with COVID-19 had greater risk than men (HR 1. 35 [95% CI 1. 30-1. 40]).

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Concepts Keywords
Bone Anxiety
Depressive Ci
Month Cov
Sex Covid
Depressive
Diagnosis
Disorder
Disorders
Hr
Infection
January
Months
Risk
Sars
Years

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH anxiety disorders
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease VO time
disease VO population
disease MESH respiratory tract infections
disease MESH infection
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
disease MESH depressive disorders
disease VO organization
disease MESH sequelae
disease MESH death
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH influenza
disease MESH pneumonia
disease IDO history
disease MESH mental illness
disease VO vaccination
disease IDO algorithm
disease MESH Overweight
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH diabetes mellitus
disease MESH Bronchitis
disease MESH chronic bronchitis
disease MESH Emphysema
disease MESH Asthma
pathway KEGG Asthma
disease MESH Bronchiectasis
disease MESH Hepatic failure
disease MESH Chronic hepatitis
disease MESH Fibrosis
disease MESH Portal hypertension
disease MESH Cerebral infarction
disease MESH Vascular dementia
disease MESH Dementia
disease MESH Frontotemporal dementia
disease MESH Neurocognitive disorder
disease MESH Neoplasms
disease MESH Rheumatoid arthritis
pathway KEGG Rheumatoid arthritis

Original Article

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