Publication date: Jan 20, 2024
During the Covid-19 pandemic, the resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 was due to the development of novel variants of concern (VOC). Thus, genomic surveillance is essential to monitor continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and to track the emergence of novel variants. In this study, we performed phylogenetic, mutation, and selection pressure analyses of the Spike, nsp12, nsp3, and nsp5 genes of SARS-CoV-2 isolates circulating in Yogyakarta and Central Java provinces, Indonesia from May 2021 to February 2022. Various bioinformatics tools were employed to investigate the evolutionary dynamics of distinct SARS-CoV-2 isolates. During the study period, 213 and 139 isolates of Omicron and Delta variants were identified, respectively. Particularly in the Spike gene, mutations were significantly more abundant in Omicron than in Delta variants. Consistently, in all of four genes studied, the substitution rates of Omicron were higher than that of Delta variants, especially in the Spike and nsp12 genes. In addition, selective pressure analysis revealed several sites that were positively selected in particular genes, implying that these sites were functionally essential for virus evolution. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a distinct evolutionary pattern of SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Yogyakarta and Central Java provinces, Indonesia.