Insights into estrogen impact in oral health & microbiome in COVID-19.

Insights into estrogen impact in oral health & microbiome in COVID-19.

Publication date: Jan 20, 2024

COVID-19 emerged in late 2019 and has occasioned more than 765 millions cumulative cases and 6. 9 millions of deaths globally. Notably, around 70% of patients with severe COVID-19 are men. Therefore, it is to be presumed that women have a hormonal protector factor in inflammation and ACE2 expression. On the other hand, oral health status, and local microbiome can be key factors to respiratory viral infections control. Nevertheless, it has been poorly investigated. In our study 20 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal and 22 men with COVID-19 were included. Oral health status, viral load, lingual ACE2 expression, as well as microbiome, estrogens and cytokines in saliva were analyzed. Our results showed a lower expression of ACE2 in tongue cells of postmenopausal compared with premenopausal (p = 0. 05), and a strong negative correlation between saliva estrogen and viral load (r = -0. 76; p = 0. 001). Respect to IFN-γ (p = 0. 05), IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-18, and IL-23 levels were increased in postmenopausal. Oral microbiome signature of premenopausal was characterized by Prevotella melaninogenica (Log2 = 26. 68; p = 1. 34e-10), Haemophilus (Log2 = 23. 99; p = 2. 96e-9), and Alloprevotella (Log2 = 7. 92; p = 0. 0001). On the other hand, Leptotrichia (Log2 = -18. 74; p = 0. 001), Tanerella (Log2 = -17. 08; p = 0. 004), and Clostridiales (Log2 = -2. 88; p = 0. 04) represented the poor oral health group compared with the adequate group which was enriched with the commensal microorganism Neisseria perflava (Log2 = 26. 70; p = 1. 74e-7). Furthermore, the high viral load group was characterized by Prevotella nanceiensis (Log2 = 19. 60; p = 6. 06e-8), Prevotella melaninogenica (Log2 = 21. 45; p = 9. 59e-6), Alloprevotella (Log2 = 23. 50; p = 2. 70e-7) and bacteria from the red complex Porphyromonas endodentalis (Log2 = 21. 97; p = 1. 38e-7). Postmenopausal and men have a poor oral health status which could be related to a detrimental progression of COVID-19 also linked to a lower expression of ACE2, lower saliva estrogen levels and oral dysbiosis. Nevertheless, functional studies are required for a deeper knowledge.

Open Access PDF

Concepts Keywords
70e COVID-19
Dysbiosis Cytokines
Estrogens Inflammation
Postmenopausal Microbiome
Viral Women-s health

Original Article

(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)