Invasive group A streptococcal infections in children and adolescents in Denmark during 2022-23 compared with 2016-17 to 2021-22: a nationwide, multicentre, population-based cohort study.

Invasive group A streptococcal infections in children and adolescents in Denmark during 2022-23 compared with 2016-17 to 2021-22: a nationwide, multicentre, population-based cohort study.

Publication date: Feb 01, 2024

A historic increase in paediatric invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections was reported globally in 2022. iGAS infections can lead to severe manifestations (eg, pleural empyema, necrotising fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and meningitis). We aimed to compare the incidence and severity of iGAS infections overall, for distinct clinical phenotypes, and for GAS emm variants in Denmark in 2022-23 with reference to the previous six seasons (ie, 2016-17, 2017-18, 2018-19, 2019-20, 2020-21, and 2021-22). In this nationwide, multicentre, population-based cohort study, we included all children and adolescents in Denmark aged 0-17 years with a positive culture of GAS or GAS confirmed through PCR-based methods from otherwise sterile sites in 2022-23 and the previous six seasons from 2016-17 to 2021-22. For all seven seasons, data were obtained from week 21 to week 20 of the next year. Patients at all 18 paediatric hospital departments in Denmark were identified through the Danish Microbiology Database, in which iGAS isolates from sterile sites are prospectively registered, including emm typing. We obtained electronic medical health records for each patient admitted with a diagnosis of iGAS. We calculated the incidence of iGAS per 1 000 000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years in each season from week 21 to week 20 of the next year and the risk ratios (RRs) for incidence of iGAS, distinct disease manifestations, and emm variants in 2022-23 versus the three pre-COVID-19 seasons in 2016-17, 2017-18, and 2018-19 using Fisher’s exact test and Pearson’s χ test. Among the Danish population of 1 152 000 children and adolescents aged 0-17 years, 174 with iGAS disease were included. 76 children and adolescents with iGAS during 2022-23 were identified; 31 (41%) of 76 were female and 45 (59%) were male. 98 children and adolescents with iGAS during 2016-17 to 2021-22 were identified; 41 (42%) of 98 were female and 57 (58%) were male. There was an increase in incidence of iGAS from mean 22.6 (95% CI 14.7-33.1) per 1 000 000 children and adolescents during 2016-17 to 2018-19 to 66.0 (52.0-82.6) per 1 000 000 during 2023-23 (RR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.6; p

Concepts Keywords
Denmark Adolescents
Gas Aged
Microbiology Based
Osteomyelitis Denmark
Emm
Gas
Identified
Igas
Incidence
Infections
Invasive
Population
Seasons
Week
Years

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH group A streptococcal infections
disease VO population
disease MESH infections
disease MESH pleural empyema
disease MESH fasciitis
disease MESH toxic shock syndrome
disease MESH osteomyelitis
disease MESH septic arthritis
disease MESH meningitis
disease MESH COVID-19

Original Article

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