N-dihydrogalactochitosan serves as an effective mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccine in combination with recombinant viral proteins against respiratory infection.

N-dihydrogalactochitosan serves as an effective mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccine in combination with recombinant viral proteins against respiratory infection.

Publication date: Feb 01, 2024

Mucosal vaccinations for respiratory pathogens provide effective protection as they stimulate localized cellular and humoral immunities at the site of infection. Currently, the major limitation of intranasal vaccination is using effective adjuvants capable of withstanding the harsh environment imposed by the mucosa. Herein, we describe the efficacy of using a unique biopolymer, N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC), as a nasal mucosal vaccine adjuvant against respiratory infections. Specifically, we mixed GC with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike (S) and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins to intranasally vaccinate K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, in comparison with Addavax (AV), an MF-59 equivalent. In contrast to AV, intranasal application of GC induces a robust, systemic antigen-specific antibody response and increases the number of T cells in the cervical lymph nodes. Moreover, GC+S+NC-vaccinated animals were largely resistant to the lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge and experienced drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, with animal weights and behavior returning to normal 22 days post-infection. In contrast, animals intranasally vaccinated with AV+S+NC experienced severe weight loss, mortality, and respiratory distress, with none surviving beyond 6 days post-infection. Our findings demonstrate that GC can serve as a potent mucosal vaccine adjuvant against SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other respiratory viruses. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that a unique biopolymer, N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC), was an effective nasal mucosal vaccine adjuvant against respiratory infections. Specifically, we mixed GC with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike (S) and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins to intranasally vaccinate K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, in comparison with Addavax (AV). In contrast to AV, GC induces a robust, systemic antigen-specific antibody response and increases the number of T cells in the cervical lymph nodes. About 90 % of the GC+S+NC-vaccinated animals survived the lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge and remained healthy 22 days post-infection, while the AV+S+NC-vaccinated animals experienced severe weight loss and respiratory distress, and all died within 6 days post-infection. Our findings demonstrate that GC is a potent mucosal vaccine adjuvant against SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other respiratory viruses.

Concepts Keywords
Biopolymer Intranasal vaccination
Lethal Mucosal vaccine adjuvant
Mice N-dihydrogalactochitosan (GC)
Mucosal Recombinant viral proteins
Vaccine Respiratory infection

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease VO effective
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH infection
disease IDO site of infection
disease VO intranasal vaccination
disease VO vaccine adjuvant
disease MESH respiratory infections
disease VO vaccinated
disease MESH morbidity
disease MESH weight loss
disease VO Viruses

Original Article

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