SARS-CoV-2 Membrane protein-specific antibodies from critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals interact with Fc-receptor expressing cells, but do not neutralize the virus.

SARS-CoV-2 Membrane protein-specific antibodies from critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals interact with Fc-receptor expressing cells, but do not neutralize the virus.

Publication date: Jan 20, 2024

The membrane glycoprotein (M) of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the key viral proteins regulating virion assembly and morphogenesis. Immunologically, the M protein is a major source of peptide antigens driving T cell responses, and most individuals who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 make antibodies to the N-terminal, surface-exposed peptide of the M protein. We now report that although the M protein is abundant in the viral particle, antibodies to the surface exposed N-terminal epitope of M do not appear to neutralise the virus. M protein-specific antibodies do, however, activate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cytokine secretion by primary human NK cells. Interestingly, while patients with severe or mild disease make comparable levels of M antigen-binding antibodies, M-specific antibodies from the serum of critically ill patients are significantly more potent activators of ADCC than antibodies found in individuals with mild or asymptomatic infection.

Concepts Keywords
Asymptomatic Antibodies
Driving COVID-19 disease
Glycoprotein Natural Killer cells
Mild SARS-CoV-2 infection
Virus

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH critically ill
disease VO Glycoprotein
disease VO M protein
disease IDO cell
disease VO report
disease MESH asymptomatic infection
disease MESH COVID-19
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Original Article

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