Publication date: Jan 23, 2024
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic occurred due to the dispersion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe symptoms can be observed in COVID-19 patients with lipid-related comorbidities such as obesity and diabetes. Yet, the extensive molecular mechanisms of how SARS-CoV-2 causes dysregulation of lipid metabolism remain unknown. Here, an advanced search of articles was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and Web of Science databases using terms from Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) like SARS-CoV-2, lipid metabolism and transcriptomic as the keywords. From 428 retrieved studies, only clinical studies using next-generation sequencing as a gene expression method in COVID-19 patients were accepted. Study design, study population, sample type, the method for gene expression and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were extracted from the five included studies. The DEGs obtained from the studies were pooled and analyzed using the bioinformatics software package, DAVID, to determine the enriched pathways. The DEGs involved in lipid metabolic pathways were selected and further analyzed using STRING and Cytoscape through visualization by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network complex. The analysis identified nine remarkable clusters from the PPI complex, where cluster 1 showed the highest molecular interaction score. Three potential candidate genes (PPARG, IFITM3 and APOBEC3G) were pointed out from the integrated bioinformatics analysis in this systematic review and were chosen due to their significant role in regulating lipid metabolism. These candidate genes were significantly involved in enriched lipid metabolic pathways, mainly in regulating lipid homeostasis affecting the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2, specifically in mechanisms of viral entry and viral replication in COVID-19 patients. Taken together, our findings in this systematic review highlight the affected lipid-metabolic pathways along with the affected genes upon SARS-CoV-2 invasion, which could be a potential target for new therapeutic strategies study in the future.
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