Publication date: Jan 11, 2024
The concept of DNA vaccination was introduced in the early 1990s. Since then, advancements in the augmentation of the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have brought this technology to the market, especially in veterinary medicine, to prevent many diseases. Along with the successful COVID mRNA vaccines, the first DNA vaccine for human use, the Indian ZyCovD vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, was approved in 2021. In the current review, we first give an overview of the DNA vaccine focusing on the science, including adjuvants and delivery methods. We then cover some of the emerging science in the field of DNA vaccines, notably efforts to optimize delivery systems, better engineer delivery apparatuses, identify optimal delivery sites, personalize cancer immunotherapy through DNA vaccination, enhance adjuvant science through gene adjuvants, enhance off-target and heritable immunity through epigenetic modification, and predict epitopes with bioinformatic approaches. We also discuss the major limitations of DNA vaccines and we aim to address many theoretical concerns.
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