Perceived risk of COVID-19 hurts mental health: the mediating role of fear of COVID-19 and the moderating role of resilience.

Perceived risk of COVID-19 hurts mental health: the mediating role of fear of COVID-19 and the moderating role of resilience.

Publication date: Jan 22, 2024

Depression and anxiety have been found prevalent during all phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. In late December 2022, almost all COVID-19 control measures were lifted in China, leading to a surge in COVID-19 infections. The public’s perceived risk and fear of COVID-19 would be increased. This study aims to examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the Chinese general population and explores the mediating role of fear of COVID-19 between COVID-19 perceived risk and depression/anxiety and the moderating role of resilience between fear of COVID-19 and depression/anxiety. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Wenzhou, China, immediately following almost all COVID-19 control measures lifted. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), the COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, COVID-19 perceived risk, fear of COVID-19, and resilience, respectively. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimator and adjusted for significant background factors was performed to test the moderated mediation. Data obtained from 935 participants were analyzed. The prevalence of moderate to severe depression and anxiety was 23. 7% and 9. 5%, respectively. The present study revealed positive associations among COVID-19 perceived risk, fear of COVID-19 and depression/anxiety, and negative associations between resilience and fear of COVID-19/depression/anxiety. Fear of COVID-19 partially mediated the association between COVID-19 perceived risk and depression/anxiety. Furthermore, resilience significantly moderated the association between fear of COVID-19 and depression/anxiety. Two moderated mediation models were constructed. Depression and anxiety were prevalent among Chinese adults during the final phase of the pandemic in China. The significant mediation role of fear of COVID-19 implies that reducing fear of COVID-19 may effectively alleviate depression and anxiety symptoms. Moreover, enhancing public resilience during an epidemic crisis is crucial for promoting mental health.

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Concepts Keywords
China Anxiety
Modeling COVID-19 perceived risk
Pandemic Depression
Psychiatry Fear of COVID-19
Resilience

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH infections
disease VO population
disease MESH Anxiety Disorder
disease MESH Long Covid
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
drug DRUGBANK Indoleacetic acid
disease IDO infection
disease MESH infectious diseases
disease IDO process
drug DRUGBANK Cysteamine
drug DRUGBANK Ademetionine
disease MESH educational level
disease IDO susceptibility
disease VO effectiveness
disease VO time
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease MESH chronic disease
drug DRUGBANK Proline
disease MESH uncertainty
disease VO effective
disease IDO intervention
disease MESH panic
disease MESH Severe acute respiratory syndrome
disease MESH Mental Disorders
disease MESH Psychological distress
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
drug DRUGBANK (S)-Des-Me-Ampa
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH morbidities
disease MESH insomnia
disease MESH stroke
disease MESH care burden
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH post traumatic stress disorder
disease MESH Smartphone Addiction
drug DRUGBANK Silver
disease MESH Death
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease IDO symptom
drug DRUGBANK Ranitidine
disease MESH job stress
disease MESH sleep quality
disease MESH burnout
drug DRUGBANK Famciclovir
drug DRUGBANK Vildagliptin
disease MESH cardiovascular diseases
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone

Original Article

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