Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain CH/HLJ/18 isolated in China: characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

Publication date: Jan 24, 2024

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an infectious disease of the digestive tract caused by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), characterized by vomiting, severe diarrhea, and high mortality rates in piglets. In recent years, the distribution of this disease in China has remarkably increased, and its pathogenicity has also increased. PEDV has been identified as the main cause of viral diarrhea in piglets. This study aimed to understand the genetic evolution and diversity of PEDV to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new vaccines and the prevention and treatment of PED. A PEDV strain was isolated from the small intestine of a diarrheal piglet using Vero cells. The virus was identified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and transmission electron microscopy. The whole genome sequence was sequenced, phylogenetic analysis was conducted using MEGA (version 7. 0), and recombination analysis was performed using RDP4 and SimPlot. The S protein amino acid sequence was aligned using Cluster X (version 2. 0), and the S protein was modeled using SWISS-MODEL to compare differences in structure and antigenicity. Finally, the piglets were inoculated with PEDV to evaluate its pathogenicity in newborn piglets. PEDV strain CH/HLJ/18 was isolated. CH/HLJ/18 shared 89. 4-99. 2% homology with 52 reference strains of PEDV belonging to the GII-a subgroup. It was a recombinant strain of PEDV BJ-2011-1 and PEDV CH_hubei_2016 with a breakpoint located in ORF1b. Unique amino acid deletions and mutations were observed in the CH/HLJ/18 S protein. The piglets then developed severe watery diarrhea and died within 7 d of inoculation with CH/HLJ/18, suggesting that CH/HLJ/18 was highly pathogenic to newborn piglets. A highly pathogenic recombinant PEDV GII-a strain, CH/HLJ/18, was identified in China, with unique deletion and mutation of amino acids in the S protein that may lead to changes in protein structure and antigenicity. These results will be crucial for understanding the prevalence and variation of PEDV and for preventing and controlling PED.

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Concepts Keywords
Ch_hubei_2016 Amino Acids
China Amino Acids
Pathogenicity Animals
Pcr China
Chlorocebus aethiops
Isolation and identification
Phylogenetic evolution
S protein
Vero Cells

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