Biodistribution of RNA Vaccines and of Their Products: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies.

Biodistribution of RNA Vaccines and of Their Products: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies.

Publication date: Dec 26, 2023

Explosive developments in mRNA vaccine technology in the last decade have made it possible to achieve great success in clinical trials of mRNA vaccines to prevent infectious diseases and develop cancer treatments and mRNA-based gene therapy products. The approval of the mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration has led to mass vaccination (with mRNA vaccines) of several hundred million people around the world, including children. Despite its effectiveness in the fight against COVID-19, rare adverse effects of the vaccination have been shown in some studies, including vascular microcirculation disorders and autoimmune and allergic reactions. The biodistribution of mRNA vaccines remains one of the most poorly investigated topics. This mini-review discussed the results of recent experimental studies on humans and rodents regarding the biodistribution of mRNA vaccines, their constituents (mRNA and lipid nanoparticles), and their encoded antigens. We focused on the dynamics of the biodistribution of mRNA vaccine products and on the possibility of crossing the blood-brain and blood-placental barriers as well as transmission to infants through breast milk. In addition, we critically assessed the strengths and weaknesses of the detection methods that have been applied in these articles, whose results’ reliability is becoming a subject of debate.

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Concepts Keywords
Bnt162b2 biodistribution
Decade biosafety
Nanoparticles blood–brain barrier
Rodents blood–placental barrier
Vaccines lipid nanoparticles
RNA vaccine


Type Source Name
disease VO vaccine
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease MESH infectious diseases
disease MESH cancer
disease VO gene
disease VO vaccination
disease VO effectiveness
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH allergic reactions
disease IDO blood
disease MESH infection
pathway REACTOME Methylation
drug DRUGBANK Protein S human
disease VO vaccinated
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH neuroinflammation
disease VO injection
disease MESH inflammation
disease VO RNA vaccine
disease IDO object
disease VO immunization
disease IDO assay
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease VO vaccine antigen
disease VO dose
disease VO report
disease IDO site
disease VO immunized
disease IDO cell
disease VO vaccination dose
disease VO vaccine dose

Original Article

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