The Impact of First-Time SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Human Anelloviruses.

The Impact of First-Time SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Human Anelloviruses.

Publication date: Jan 09, 2024

Members of the Anelloviridae family dominate the blood virome, emerging early in life. The anellome, representing the variety of anelloviruses within an individual, stabilizes by adulthood. Despite their supposedly commensal nature, elevated anellovirus concentrations under immunosuppressive treatment indicate an equilibrium controlled by immunity. Here, we investigated whether anelloviruses are sensitive to the immune activation that accompanies a secondary infection. As a model, we investigated 19 health care workers (HCWs) with initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, with blood sampling performed pre and post infection every 4 weeks in a 3-month-follow-up during the early 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. A concurrently followed control group (n = 27) remained SARS-CoV-2-negative. Serum anellovirus loads were measured using qPCR. A significant decrease in anellovirus load was found in the first weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas anellovirus concentrations remained stable in the uninfected control group. A restored anellovirus load was seen approximately 10 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. For five subjects, an in-time anellome analysis via Illumina sequencing could be performed. In three of the five HCWs, the anellome visibly changed during SARS-CoV-2 infection and returned to baseline in two of these cases. In conclusion, anellovirus loads in blood can temporarily decrease upon an acute secondary infection.

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Concepts Keywords
Anelloviruses Adult
Epidemiology anellome
Month Anelloviridae
Serum Coinfection
Stable COVID-19


Type Source Name
disease VO time
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 Infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease IDO blood
disease IDO commensal
disease MESH secondary infection
disease MESH infection
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO population
disease MESH immune disorders
disease IDO host
drug DRUGBANK Cytidine
drug DRUGBANK Uracil
drug DRUGBANK Propylthiouracil
disease IDO production
disease VO dead
disease IDO cell
pathway KEGG Allograft rejection
disease IDO immunosuppression
disease MESH viral infection
disease MESH syndrome
disease IDO assay
drug DRUGBANK Water
disease VO gene
disease IDO quality
disease VO antibody titer
disease IDO symptom
disease MESH Seroconversion
drug DRUGBANK Creatinolfosfate
drug DRUGBANK Indoleacetic acid
drug DRUGBANK L-Phenylalanine
disease VO URE
disease MESH respiratory infections
disease IDO acute infection
disease MESH hepatitis
disease VO vaccine
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH influenza
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease VO organ
disease VO organization
disease MESH Etiology
disease MESH Clinical Relevance
pathway KEGG Viral replication
disease IDO bacteria
disease MESH Inflammation
disease IDO replication
disease MESH Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
disease IDO susceptibility
disease MESH Chronic Hepatitis
disease IDO immunodeficiency
drug DRUGBANK Troleandomycin
pathway KEGG Base excision repair
disease VO protocol

Original Article

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