The Need for Novel Asexual Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine Candidates for Plasmodium falciparum.

The Need for Novel Asexual Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine Candidates for Plasmodium falciparum.

Publication date: Jan 12, 2024

Extensive control efforts have significantly reduced malaria cases and deaths over the past two decades, but in recent years, coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic, success has stalled. The WHO has urged the implementation of a number of interventions, including vaccines. The modestly effective RTS,S/AS01 pre-erythrocytic vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for use in sub-Saharan Africa against Plasmodium falciparum in children residing in moderate to high malaria transmission regions. A second pre-erythrocytic vaccine, R21/Matrix-M, was also recommended by the WHO on 3 October 2023. However, the paucity and limitations of pre-erythrocytic vaccines highlight the need for asexual blood-stage malaria vaccines that prevent disease caused by blood-stage parasites. Few asexual blood-stage vaccine candidates have reached phase 2 clinical development, and the challenges in terms of their efficacy include antigen polymorphisms and low immunogenicity in humans. This review summarizes the history and progress of asexual blood-stage malaria vaccine development, highlighting the need for novel candidate vaccine antigens/molecules.

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Concepts Keywords
Africa antigen discovery
Decades asexual blood stage
October Child
Paucity Erythrocytes
Vaccine Humans
Malaria Vaccines
Malaria Vaccines
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium falciparum


Type Source Name
disease IDO blood
disease VO malaria vaccine
disease MESH malaria
pathway KEGG Malaria
disease MESH COVID-19 pandemic
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease VO effective
disease VO vaccine
disease IDO history
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease IDO cell
disease MESH infection
disease IDO parasite
disease MESH hepatitis
drug DRUGBANK Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)
disease VO organization
disease VO vaccinated
disease MESH morbidity
disease VO vaccine candidate
disease IDO host
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
pathway KEGG Tight junction
drug DRUGBANK Methylergometrine
disease IDO process
drug DRUGBANK L-Cysteine
disease VO protective antigen
disease VO immunization
disease VO immunized
disease VO injection
disease VO subunit vaccine
disease VO MSP3
drug DRUGBANK Serine
disease VO GLURP
disease VO vaccine antigen
drug DRUGBANK Glutamic Acid
disease VO ineffective
drug DRUGBANK Gamolenic acid
disease VO vaccine strain
disease IDO assay
disease VO combination vaccine
disease VO vaccine efficacy
drug DRUGBANK Heparin
drug DRUGBANK Albendazole
disease IDO replication
disease VO MVA
disease VO RESA
disease MESH point mutation
drug DRUGBANK Aluminum hydroxide
disease VO protocol
disease IDO site
drug DRUGBANK Aluminium phosphate
disease VO multivalent vaccine
disease IDO immune response
disease VO effectiveness
disease VO vaccination
disease VO dose
disease IDO production
disease MESH parasitemia
disease VO pregnant women
disease MESH parasite infection
drug DRUGBANK Methionine
disease VO vaccine clinical trial
disease VO Optaflu
drug DRUGBANK Tromethamine
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Trypsin
disease MESH death
drug DRUGBANK (S)-Des-Me-Ampa
drug DRUGBANK Sulfasalazine
drug DRUGBANK L-Alanine
disease VO Plasmodium falciparum vaccine

Original Article

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