Publication date: Jan 23, 2024
Influenza viruses remain a major public health concern causing contagious respiratory illnesses that result in around 290,000-650,000 global deaths every year. Their ability to constantly evolve through antigenic shifts and drifts leads to the emergence of newer strains and resistance to existing drugs and vaccines. To combat this, there is a critical need for novel antiviral drugs through the introduction of host-targeted therapeutics. Influenza viruses encode only 14 gene products that get extensively modified through phosphorylation by a diverse array of host kinases. Reversible phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues dynamically regulates the structure, function, and subcellular localization of viral proteins at different stages of their life cycle. In addition, kinases influence a plethora of signaling pathways that also regulate virus propagation by modulating the host cell environment thus establishing a critical virus-host relationship that is indispensable for executing successful infection. This dependence on host kinases opens up exciting possibilities for developing kinase inhibitors as next-generation anti-influenza therapy. To fully capitalize on this potential, extensive mapping of the influenza virus-host kinase interaction network is essential. The key focus of this review is to outline the molecular mechanisms by which host kinases regulate different steps of the influenza A virus life cycle, starting from attachment-entry to assembly-budding. By assessing the contributions of different host kinases and their specific phosphorylation events during the virus life cycle, we aim to develop a holistic overview of the virus-host kinase interaction network that may shed light on potential targets for novel antiviral interventions.
|Influenza A virus