Long-term care needs and the risk of household poverty across Europe: a comparative secondary data study.

Publication date: Jan 26, 2024

Population ageing and rising poverty are two of the most pressing issues today, even in Western European nations, growing as a result of the recent global economic crisis and the COVID-19 containment measures. This study explores the relationship between long-term care (LTC) needs and risk of poverty at household level in eight European countries, representing the different European care regimes. The main international databases were scoured for study variables, categorized according to the following conceptual areas: home care, residential care, health expenditure, service coverage, cash benefits, private services, population, family, education, employment, poverty, disability and care recipients, and life expectancy. We initially identified 104 variables regarding 8 different countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Poland, Romania). Statistical analyses were conducted as described hereafter: analysis of the Pearson’s Bivariate Correlation between the dependent variable and all other variables; a Multivariable Linear Regression Model between the Poverty Index (dependent variable) and the covariates identified in the preceding step; a check for geographical clustering effects and a reduced Multivariable Linear Regression Model for each identified European cluster. The variables that addressed the risk of poverty pertained to the area of policy intervention and service provision. Rising private out-of-pocket health expenditures and proportion of “poor” couples with at least one child are two factors that contributed significantly to poverty increasing. Moreover, rising private out-of-pocket health expenditures for covering LTC needs (even in presence of public financial contribution to the family) is the main contributor to household poverty increasing in presence of ADL disability. The results reveal the existence of a clear correlation between the need for LTC and the risk of poverty in households across Europe. These results highlight the central relevance of LTC policies, which are often still treated as marginal and sectoral, for the future sustainability of integrated care strategies.

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Concepts Keywords
Austria ADL disability
Future Ageing population
Germany Long-term care


Type Source Name
disease VO population
drug DRUGBANK Nonoxynol-9
disease MESH COVID-19
disease IDO intervention
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
disease IDO country
disease VO effective
disease IDO process
disease VO monthly
disease VO frequency
disease MESH Unemployment
disease MESH causality
disease MESH dementia
drug DRUGBANK Serine
disease VO organ
disease MESH death
disease MESH morbidity
disease VO Equity
disease VO report
disease MESH Care Burden
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease MESH mental illness
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH Emergencies

Original Article

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