Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein 3 cross-react with human muscle cells and neuroglial cells.

Publication date: Jan 27, 2024

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines protect the public and limit viral spread. However, inactivated viral vaccines use the whole virus particle, which contains many non-capsid proteins that may cause adverse immune responses. A report has found that the ADP-ribose-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) and human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family member 14 (PARP14) share a significant degree of homology. Here, we further show that antibodies against 2019 novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) NSP3 can bind human PARP14 protein. However, when G159R + G162R mutations were introduced into NSP3, the antibody titer against human PARP14 decreased 14-fold. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 NSP3 can cross-react with human skeletal muscle cells and astrocytes, but not human embryonic kidney 293T cells. However, when G159R + G162R mutations were introduced into NSP3, the cross-reaction was largely inhibited. The results imply that COVID-19 patients with high antibody titers against NSP3 may have high risks of muscular and/or neurological complications. And the possible strategies to improve the safety of inactivated viral vaccines are also discussed.

Concepts Keywords
Inactivated Antibody cross-reaction
Kidney Astrocytes
Parp14 Human PARP14
Polymerase SARS-CoV-2 NSP3
Vaccines

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH Coronavirus Disease 2019
disease VO report
disease VO antibody titer
disease MESH complications

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