Flu vaccine administration in the period before SARS-CoV-2 infection and its outcomes: An umbrella review.

Publication date: Feb 01, 2024

The potential association between influenza vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection and related outcomes is still controversial. The aim of this umbrella review is to represent the impact of previous influenza vaccination and COVID-19 outcomes using evidence currently available in literature. A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library was conducted. The paper selection was conducted using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) method by two-blinded authors. The quality of meta-analyses was assessed using the AMSTAR 2 scale (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews). The outcomes investigated were SARS-CoV-2 infection after influenza vaccination, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality. The literature research identified 7 ecological studies and 6 meta-analyses. All the ecological studies show a negative relationship between influenza vaccination and COVID-19. The meta-analyses suggest a protective action of influenza vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Regarding the outcomes evaluated, only two studies reported a statistically significant reduction of 12% and of 17% in hospitalization and intensive care unit admission, respectively. Regarding mechanical ventilation, three studies showed a risk reduction of 31%, 27% and 28%. A substantial reduction of mortality risk was also observed in one study. These results suggest that influenza vaccination could be associated with reduced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, mechanical ventilation and mortality. Our findings highlighted how the administration of flu vaccine in subjects at risk could lead to a reduction in mortality, particularly in the over 65y.

Concepts Keywords
Hospitalization COVID-19
Influenza Hospitalization
Library Influenza vaccination
Protective Mortality
Vaccine SARS-CoV-2 infection


Type Source Name
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease MESH influenza
disease VO vaccination
disease IDO quality
disease IDO susceptibility

Original Article

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