Omicron BA.4/5 neutralization and cell-mediated immune responses in relation to baseline immune status and breakthrough infection among PLWH: A follow-up cohort study.

Publication date: Feb 01, 2024

There is a paucity of data on hybrid immunity (vaccination plus breakthrough infection [BI]), especially cell-mediated responses to Omicron among immunosuppressed patients. We aim to investigate humoral and cellular responses to Omicron BA. 4/5 among people living with HIV (PLWH) with/without BIs, the most prevalent variant of concern after the reopening of China. Based on our previous study, we enrolled 77 PLWH with baseline immune status of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 specific antibodies after inactivated vaccination. “Correlates of protection,” including serological immunoassays, T cell phenotypes and memory B cells (MBC) were determined in PLWH without and with BI, together with 16 PLWH with reinfections. Higher inhibition rate of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against BA. 4/5 was elicited among PLWH with BI than those without. Omicron-reactive IL4 CD8 T cells were significantly elevated in PLWH experienced postvaccine infection contrasting with those did not. NAb towards wild type at baseline was associated with prolonged negative conversion time for PLWH whereas intermediate MBCs serve as protecting effectors. We uncovered that hybrid immunity intensified more protection on BA. 4/5 than vaccination did. Strengthened surveillance on immunological parameters and timely clinical intervention on PLWH deficient in protection would reduce the severity and mortality in the context of coexistence with new Omicron subvariants.

Concepts Keywords
Antibodies antibodies
China breakthrough infection
Coronavirus cellular response
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2
Timely

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease IDO cell
disease MESH breakthrough infection
disease VO vaccination
disease VO Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
disease MESH reinfections
disease MESH infection
disease VO time
disease IDO intervention

Original Article

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