First COVID-19 wave in the province of Bergamo, Italy: epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcome and management of the first hospitalized patients.

Publication date: Jan 31, 2024

Northern Italy was the first European country affected by the spread of the SARS-CoV-2, with the epicenter in the province of Bergamo. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of patients who experienced more severe symptoms during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively collected epidemiological and clinical data on patients with laboratory-confirmed wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted to the “ASST Bergamo Ovest” hospital between February 21 and May 31, 2020. A total of seven hundred twenty-three inpatients met the eligible criteria and were included in the study cohort. Among the inpatients who survived, the average hospital length of stay was more than two weeks, with some lasting up to three months. Among the 281 non-survivors, death occurred in 50% within five days. Survivors were those whose first aid operators recorded higher oxygen saturation levels at home. The request for first aid assistance came more than one week after symptom onset, within three days in 10% of cases. In similar future scenarios, based on our data, if we aim to enhance the survival rate, we need to improve the territorial healthcare assistance and admit to hospitals only those patients who are at risk of severe illness requiring specialized and urgent interventions within two, three, or, at most, five days from the onset of symptoms. This implies that the crucial factor is, has been, and will be the ability of a healthcare system to react promptly in its entirety within a few days.

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Concepts Keywords
February Bergamo
Inpatients Characteristics
Italy Clinical
Pandemic Cov


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease IDO country
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
drug DRUGBANK Methionine
disease MESH death
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
disease IDO symptom
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
disease MESH pneumonia
disease MESH etiology
disease VO organization
disease MESH emergency
disease VO effective
disease VO vaccination
disease VO population
disease VO dose
disease VO vaccine
drug DRUGBANK Indoleacetic acid
disease IDO facility
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease IDO intervention
disease VO report
disease IDO blood
drug DRUGBANK Tretamine
drug DRUGBANK Medical air
disease MESH cardiovascular disease
disease MESH kidney failure
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH obesity
drug DRUGBANK Azithromycin
drug DRUGBANK Lopinavir
drug DRUGBANK Ritonavir
drug DRUGBANK Chloroquine
drug DRUGBANK Hydroxychloroquine
drug DRUGBANK Tocilizumab
disease MESH defects
drug DRUGBANK Prothrombin
disease MESH heart failure
drug DRUGBANK Creatine
disease MESH liver failure
drug DRUGBANK L-Alanine
disease MESH inflammation
disease VO laboratory test
drug DRUGBANK Saquinavir
disease VO time
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Esomeprazole
disease MESH infection
disease MESH comorbidity
disease MESH vascular disease
disease MESH ischemic heart disease
disease MESH myocardial infarction
drug DRUGBANK L-Valine
disease MESH HIV infection
drug DRUGBANK Heparin
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
drug DRUGBANK Hyaluronic acid
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease VO dead
disease VO age
disease VO URE
disease MESH deep venous thrombosis
disease MESH rheumatoid arthritis
pathway KEGG Rheumatoid arthritis
disease MESH emerging infectious disease
disease MESH morbidity
drug DRUGBANK Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
disease MESH critically ill
disease MESH functional status
disease MESH Fibrosis
drug DRUGBANK L-Tyrosine
drug DRUGBANK Delorazepam
disease VO Iss
disease MESH liver fibrosis

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