Enhancing Immunological Memory: Unveiling Booster Doses to Bolster Vaccine Efficacy Against Evolving SARS-CoV-2 Mutant Variants.

Publication date: Feb 05, 2024

A growing number of re-infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in previously immunized individuals has sparked discussions about the potential need for a booster vaccine dosage to counteract declining antibody levels and new strains. The protective immunity produced by vaccinations, and past illnesses relies on immunological memory. CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, B cells, and long-lasting antibody responses are all components of the adaptive immune system that can generate and maintain this immunological memory. Since novel mutant variants have emerged one after the other, the world has been hit by repeated waves. Various vaccine formulations against SARS-CoV-2 have been administered across the globe. Thus, estimating the efficacy of those vaccines against gradually developed mutant stains is the essential parameter regarding the fate of those vaccine formulations and the necessity of booster doses and their frequency. In this review, focus has also been given to how vaccination stacks up against moderate and severe acute infections in terms of the longevity of the immune cells, neutralizing antibody responses, etc. However, hybrid immunity shows a greater accuracy of re-infection of variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2 than infection and immunization. The review conveys knowledge of detailed information about several marketed vaccines and the status of their efficacy against specific mutant strains of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, this review discusses the status of immunological memory after infection, mixed infection, and vaccination.

Concepts Keywords
Booster Antibody
Cd4 Booster
Gradually Cells
Mutant Cov
Vaccines Doses


Type Source Name
disease VO vaccine efficacy
disease MESH re-infections
disease VO Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
disease VO immunized
disease VO vaccine
pathway REACTOME Adaptive Immune System
disease VO frequency
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH infections
disease IDO infection
disease VO immunization
disease MESH infection mixed

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