Increased antibody titers but induced T cell AICD and apoptosis response in COVID-19 convalescents by inactivated vaccine booster.

Publication date: Feb 06, 2024

It is urgently needed to evaluate the necessity and benefits of booster vaccination against the coronavirus 2 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron to facilitate clinical decision-making for 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) convalescents. We conducted a multicenter, prospective clinical trial (registration number: ChiCTR2100045810) in the first patients with COVID-19 from 28 January 2020 to 20 February 2020 to assess the long-term durability of neutralizing antibodies against live Omicron BA. 5 and further assess the efficiency and safety of CoronaVac in the convalescent group. A total of 96 COVID-19 convalescents were enrolled in this study. Neutralizing antibody titers in convalescents were significantly reduced in 9-10 months. A dose-refreshing vaccination in 28 convalescents with an antibody titer below 96 significantly induced neutralizing antibodies against live Omicron by 4. 84-fold. Meanwhile, the abundance of naive T cells increased dramatically, and T and T cells gradually decreased after vaccination. Activation-induced cell death and apoptosis-related genes were significantly elevated after vaccination in all T-cell subtypes. One-dose booster vaccination was effective in inducing a robust antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron in COVID-19 convalescents with low antibody titers. However, vaccine-mediated T-cell consumption and regeneration patterns may be detrimental to the antiviral response. IMPORTANCEThe globally dominant coronavirus 2 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant raises the possibility of repeat infections among 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) convalescents with low neutralizing antibody titers. The importance of this multicenter study lies in its evaluation of the long-term durability of neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 convalescents and the efficacy of a booster vaccination against the live Omicron. The findings suggest that a one-dose booster vaccination is effective in inducing a robust antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron in convalescents with low antibody titers. However, the study also highlights the potential detrimental effects on the antiviral response due to vaccine-mediated T-cell consumption and regeneration patterns. These results are crucial for facilitating clinical decision-making for COVID-19 convalescents and informing public health policies regarding booster vaccinations.

Concepts Keywords
Antibodies cell death
Chictr2100045810 convalescents
Coronavirus Omicron
Death SARS-CoV-2
Efficiency T cells
vaccine

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease IDO cell
pathway KEGG Apoptosis
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO inactivated vaccine
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH severe acute respiratory syndrome
pathway KEGG Coronavirus disease
disease VO efficiency
disease VO CoronaVac
disease VO dose
disease VO antibody titer
disease VO effective
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH infections

Original Article

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