Potent induction of humoral and cellular immunity after bivalent BA.4/5 mRNA vaccination in dialysis patients.

Publication date: Feb 07, 2024

Knowledge on immunogenicity of the bivalent Omicron BA. 4/5 vaccine in dialysis patients and the effect of a previous infection is limited. Therefore, vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immunity was analyzed in dialysis patients and immunocompetent controls with and without prior infection. In an observational study, 33 dialysis patients and 58 controls matched for age, sex and prior infection status were recruited. Specific IgG, neutralizing antibody activity and cellular immunity towards the spike-antigen from parental SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron-subvariants BA. 1, BA. 2 and BA. 4/5 were analyzed before and 13-18 days after vaccination. The bivalent vaccine led to a significant induction of IgG, neutralizing titers, and specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell levels. Neutralizing activity towards the parental strain was higher than towards the Omicron-subvariants, whereas specific T-cell levels towards parental spike and Omicron-subvariants did not differ indicating substantial cross-reactivity. Dialysis patients with prior infection had significantly higher spike-specific CD4 T-cell levels with lower CTLA-4 expression compared to infection-naive patients. When compared to controls, no differences were observed between infection-naive individuals. Among convalescent individuals, CD4 T-cell levels were higher in patients and neutralizing antibodies were higher in controls. Vaccination was overall well tolerated in both dialysis patients and controls with significantly less adverse events among patients. In conclusion, our study did not provide any evidence for impaired immunogenicity of the bivalent Omicron BA. 4/5 vaccine in dialysis patients. Unlike in controls, previous infection of patients was even associated with higher levels of spike-specific CD4 T cells, which may reflect prolonged encounter with antigen during infection.

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Concepts Keywords
Cd4 Ba
Dialysis Bivalent
Naive Cell
Parental Cellular
Vaccine Controls
Dialysis
Higher
Infection
Neutralizing
Omicron
Patients
Specific
Spike
Vaccine

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease VO vaccination
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH infection
disease IDO cell
disease MESH SARS CoV 2 infection
disease MESH fatal outcome
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease IDO immunodeficiency
disease MESH death
disease MESH hepatitis
disease VO vaccine effectiveness
disease MESH breakthrough infection
disease IDO history
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO population
disease VO immunization
disease MESH renal failure
disease IDO blood
disease VO injection
disease IDO site
disease VO Comirnaty
disease MESH glomerulonephritis
disease MESH Diabetes mellitus
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH Liver cirrhosis
disease MESH tumor
disease MESH ANCA associated vasculitis
disease VO dose
disease IDO immunocompetence
disease IDO enterotoxin
disease VO vaccine dose
drug DRUGBANK Diethylstilbestrol
drug DRUGBANK Dimethyl sulfoxide
disease IDO assay

Original Article

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